Multiple Exposure and Christmas Lights

Multiple-exposure image created with three in-camera exposures
As I have mentioned in previous blog posts, I have really enjoyed having the multiple exposure feature on my Canon 7D Mark ii. Canon has taken the ability to sandwich multiple photographs in-camera to a whole new level. 

When you shot double exposures back in the good old film days, the results were usually pretty random. A few cameras had the ability to re-set the shutter without advancing the film. For most of us, creating double exposures required either re-loading an exposed roll of film into the camera and shooting over the top of previous images; or, doing physical camera gymnastics to keep the camera from advancing the film in order to shoot an extra image. 

Nikon was one of the first digital manufacturers to incorporate double exposures into their digital cameras. What a wonderful new feature! With these cameras, you decided before you created the first shot that you wanted to make a multiple. And, you created your double exposures with the next images you shot. You could not preview how the images would overlap. The results were better than the old film days, but still left a huge amount to trial and error. (Which is part of the fun and spontaneity of creative photography)

Enter the new batch of Canon cameras. 

With my Canon 7D Mark ii, I can decide after the first shot is made to create a multiple exposure. And, I can use almost any photo on the memory card as the base image, even if I shot it days or weeks ago. Plus, I can preview how the images will overlap, using the Live View feature on my camera's LCD panel. This has taken multiple exposures to a whole new level of creativity. 

One additional exciting feature is choosing how the images will blend. I can choose from the following blends:
  • Additive - takes the exposures and combines them together for cumulative brightness. For example, if I shoot every image with normal exposure and I overlap 3 images, the image will be overexposed; 1 normal + 1 normal + 1 normal = 3x normal or overexposed

    If I shoot underexposed by 2/3 stop, I should have a relatively normal exposure;
    1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3 = 1 (normal)

    The cool thing is that you don't have to do the math. Just experiment until you get the right combo to make the image as bright as needed.
  • Average - takes the average of the exposures and creates a finished image
  • Bright - chooses the brightest pixels from each layer and displays those pixels.
  • Dark - chooses the darkest pixels from each sandwiched image and displays those pixels
For the images in this blog post, I used the additive setting. This works well when so much of each image is black. The image will appear to overlap only where there is color.

As you read my process below, don't be deterred by the seemingly complex process. Although I am explaining what I have done, much of the process is still seat-of-the-pants creative photography. My explanation is intended to give you a starting point for your own fun.

Exposure #1
ISO 400  1/40 sec. f/4.5  200mm

(click to enlarge)
For the first image, I wanted a bokeh effect of large, slightly out-of-focus circles. This is usually easy to achieve with a longer telephoto lens like a 200mm, shooting at a low numbered aperture. I made sure that the camera was braced so that the edges of the circles were crisp. 

Two things to note about the Canon camera and multiple exposures. Whatever ISO you use for your first image will be the ISO for all images. Choose carefully, especially in extreme shooting situations like bright sunlight or dark of night. The other feature that is set by the first image is your white balance. 

Here is the second image I made. Note that the Canon camera has the ability to save the base images individually, so you can use them as separate images or play with layers later on in Photoshop or other software. Very useful if you don't quite like your alignment. 
Exposure #2
ISO 400  1/100 sec. f/4  115mm
Here is what the first and second images look like as a multiple. This is the way the camera combined the two images. Note the translucence created by adding the layers together.
First Multiple
Combining Images #1 and #2
After I got a combination I liked, I set about adding third images to the first multiple. One of the beautiful things about the Canon 7D Mark ii is the ability to use the same base image for several multiples. You get a chance to try different techniques, compositions, exposures and combinations. 

Here is my first attempt at a 3rd layer for the multiple. I moved the camera diagonally while shooting to create the movement effect.
Exposure #3
ISO 400  1/4 sec. f/11  150mm
And, here is the first combination again. I like how animated and festive the different sized elements become in the final image.
First Finished image

Since the Canon gives me the opportunity to use one base image for multiple finished compositions, I shot several versions of the final image. Here is another option for a finished image.
Second finished image created with different 3rd exposure

Same first image as above
Combining Images #1 and #2

Exposure #4
ISO 400  1/5 sec. f/11  200mm

December 21, 2016 Bufflehead diving

Male bufflehead duck beginning a dive at Budd Inlet on South Puget Sound
Olympia, WA
December 21, 2016

The photo above looks deceptively simple at first glance. The distinctive white male bufflehead is a familiar sight for anyone who has hung around the water in Western Washington in the Winter. Hang around for a minute or two and you are sure to see one of their acrobatic dives into the deep where they forage for food. 

What is unique about the photo is catching the duck in mid-dive, before his bill breaks the surface of the water. 

It takes less than 1 second from the beginning of the dive until all that is left is the splash. 

Here is an animated image which contains a sequence of 6 frames of a male bufflehead diving. I have slowed it down to 1/5th the original speed, so 6/10 of a second is expanded to 3 seconds. You can see that I only managed two frames before the duck's head disappears below the surface. 

 The keys to capturing the desired precise moment are twofold; first, own a camera capable of at least 7 frames per second shooting, so you will have 1-3 frames during the dive. I waited a long time for Canon's 7D Mark ii to arrive on the scene with it's 10 frames per second. Some of the new mirrorless cameras can shoot over 20 frames in a second. The second factor is being able to anticipate when the duck is going to dive. This takes many hours of watching and studying the duck's behavior to see what signal it might give. In the case of most diving ducks, they change the shape of their neck right before they dive. If you can spot this change, you can press the shutter just as the duck is beginning to dive. It also takes a good deal of practice to get the photographer's eye and hand synchronized. 

Here is the same dive as above, at real speed. You can still see the individual frames, but much harder to separate the action from the fluid motion of the dive. 

December 21, 2016 - Surf Scoter about to eat a whole clam

Male juvenile surf scoter eating a clam 
Budd Inlet in Olympia, Washington
December 21, 2016

I have always had a strong stomach. I enjoy eating hot and spicy foods, with few digestive problems. My culinary escapades seem positively weak compared to the eating habits of the scoter family. 

Scoters are diving ducks who winter along the coasts of the lower 48 states. Many of them breed in the Hudson Bay area and in the Arctic. Surf scoters are a common sight on Puget Sound during the winter months. The males are sometimes confused with puffins because of their jet black color and orange and white beaks. 

The diet of Surf scoters is primarily mollusks, with some crustaceans, small fishes and marine worms thrown in to their diet. After diving for clams or mussels, Surf scoters eat the whole thing - shell and all. Their powerful gizzard helps them to process the food from the shells.

I watched a small group of mostly female and juvenile scoters feed. In the course of a quarter hour, some of the ducks appeared to eat at least a half dozen clams. Pretty amazing!

Detail of the photograph above
Note the ridges along the sides of the Surf scoter's mouth,
which help to position and move mollusks so that
they can be easily swallowed

Photographing Holiday Lights using the Zoom Effect

Photographing Holiday Lights using the Zoom Effect

One fun, creative technique to try when photographing seasonal lights is the zoom blur effect. This effect creates a look of things bursting forward or moving backward in space. 

It is possible to create a zoom effect in post-processing using Adobe Photoshop filters and layering techniques. 

It is also possible to create the effect in-camera while you make the original images. I like doing the effect in-camera because the results are somewhat less predictable and seemingly more organic. 

All of the photographs below were created during daylight hours using the zoom effect while shooting the photographs. 

I made the images in a corridor of an office complex in the International District of Seattle which houses the headquarters for Paul Allen's Vulcan Corporation. Paul Allen is also the owner of the Seattle Seahawks. That is why the lights are in Seahawks team colors!

Here's my technique: 

  1. Place your camera on a tripod. This will make it easier to zoom the lens while you are also shooting. 
  2. Set your camera on either Manual or Aperture Priority mode. If you are shooting at night, Manual is recommended so that the camera does not overexpose to compensate for the black surrounding your lights. Since I was photographing during daytime hours and the background of my images was close to middle gray, I was able to shoot in Aperture Priority mode and let the camera choose the shutter speed for me. 
  3. Set your ISO to 100, 200 or 400. Do not set your ISO to a high ISO. This defeats the purpose of getting a longer shutter speed. 
  4. Set your aperture to a high number, like f/11, f/16 or f/22
  5. Take a test shot without zooming. Your goal is to have a shutter speed between 1/15 sec. and 1/3 second. If your test shot has a faster shutter speed like 1/30 sec., use a higher numbered aperture or lower ISO. If your shutter speed has a slow shutter speed like 1 second, use a lower numbered aperture or higher ISO. 
  6. Take as many test shots as needed to get an exposure combination with a shutter speed between 1/15 and 1/3 second. 
  7. Put your lens/camera on manual focus. You do not want your camera to try to re-focus between shots. 
  8. Set your motor drive to continuous. 
  9. Place your hand so that it rests comfortably on your zoom. Test moving the zoom control back and forth until you are comfortable with turning the zoom smoothly. 
  10. Place your other hand on your shutter button. 
  11. As you begin zooming slowly, press your shutter button down and hold. Zoom back and forth, adjusting your zoom speed, all while holding the shutter button down. 
  12. After shooting 5 - 10 shots, review your work. Adjust composition, exposure and zooming speed to improve your photos or get different results. 
  13. Rinse, repeat and HAVE FUN! 

When you have finished taking your shots:

  • reset your lens/camera to auto-focus
  • reset your aperture to a middle of the road aperture like f/8
  • reset your ISO to your default ISO
  • take the camera out of manual mode if it is not your regular shooting mode

ISO 400    1/3 sec.   f/18
 Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L USM Lens

ISO 400    1/3 sec.   f/20
 Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L USM Lens
ISO 400    1/3 sec.   f/18  (cropped image)
 Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L USM Lens

ISO 400    1/3 sec.   f/20
 Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L USM Lens

November 10, 2016 Waiting

Waiting to cross; Shadows on a sunny Fall day
International District
Seattle, Washington

November 10,2016

November 3, 2016 Playing with Light and Shadow

Midday sun illuminates the railroad tracks 
at King Street Station in Seattle, Washington
November 3, 2016

Casting a long shadow

October 22, 2016 Fall colors at Woodard Bay DNR area

Fall colors and angular light highlight the beautiful landscape at Woodard Bay 
Olympia, WA
October 22, 2016

October 18, 2016 Great Blue Heron in silhouette

Great Blue Heron takes off during a rain storm on South Puget Sound
Olympia, WA
October 18, 2016 

October 15, 2016 Painterly Raindrops falling down

Rain drops hitting the surface of the water in Trillium Park during a fall rainstorm
Olympia, WA 
October 15, 2016 

October 11, 2016 Last of this season's dahlias

Intricately patterned fall dahlia at Volunteer Park

September 13, 2016 Salmon Fishing along the Duwamish Waterway

September 13, 2016  
Salmon Fishing along the Duwamish Waterway
Seattle, WA

Tribal fisherman manages his nets along the Duwamish Waterway in Seattle

August 18, 2016 Cape Alava and Ozette River

looking South across the Ozette River

August 18, 2016 Cape Alava and Ozette River
Olympic National Park

Walking through the exposed tidelands between Cape Alava and the Ozette River
Beautiful morning for a backpack along the beach.
The mist rising above the ocean adds depth to the scene. 

Sunset from the Ozette River with Tskawahyah Island in the background

August 12, 2016 North Head Lighthouse

Sunset on the Pacific Ocean at North Head Lighthouse
 in Cape Disappointment State Park

Ilwaco, WA
August 12, 2016

Photo of the Week - July 21, 2016

Female Purple martin flies towards its nest box as its mate perches outside the box. 
Boston Harbor Marina
Olympia, WA

July 21, 2016

Painting with Light

One of the highlights of large festivals and fairs is the midway full of rides and amusements. The lights, sounds and excitement are a photographers dream. It can be especially fun to photograph the carnival lights at dusk, when some ambient light remains and the rides are at their most magical moment. When it gets completely dark, that is usually the signal for the photographer to head home. Without the contrast of surroundings, carnival lights lose some of their dynamic energy. 

When I was photographing at Olympia's annual Lakefair festival this year, I ran into that problem. The last remaining color had been drained from the sky. As I photographed the rides, they were no longer recognizable and had turned into streaks and circles of light. One or two of these are interesting, but not interesting enough to keep me photographing. 

As I got ready to leave, I  decided to try one last thing. I set my camera to ISO 100 and my smallest aperture, f/32. In manual exposure mode, I set the shutter speed to 1.3 seconds. And then, I took the camera off the tripod. Focusing on the center of the Ferris wheel, I began to move the camera while I pressed down the shutter button. The Ferris wheel was moving in its circular motion. I moved the camera in somewhat square and swirly patterns. Some of the results are shown below. 

I really like the strong rainbow colors. And, the spirograph like patterns are really fun.

Photo of the Week - July 13, 2016

Flying through the air on a carnival ride at 
Olympia's 59th Annual Lakefair festival. 

July 13, 2016
Capitol Lake
Olympia, WA

Photo of the Week - July 4, 2016

The Artesian Family Festival & Thunder Valley Fireworks Show
Tumwater Valley Golf Club
Tumwater, WA

July 4, 2016

Many thanks to Chuck Denney and all the great folks at the
City of Tumwater for making the Fourth of July event run
smoothly. You make my work as a photographer so easy with
all the hard work you put in behind the scenes. 

If you haven't been, be sure to put Tumwater's 4th of July celebration
on your calendar for next year. Free face painting, games, music.
Food booths. Skydivers. And, just when you think it
doesn't get any better, there are excellent fireworks!

Photo of the Week - June 20, 2016

Male American goldfinch feeds on seeds from tall grasses
South Puget Sound Wildlife Area
Lakewood, WA

June 20, 2016

Photo of the Week - June 16, 2016

Students and visitors cross University of Washington's Red Square
in this multiple exposure image, which was created
in camera with three separate exposures.

Seattle, WA
June 16, 2016

Canon 7D Mark II

Photo of the Week - May 12, 2016

Lorquin's admiral butterfly gathering nectar from
Pacific ninebark flowers

Black Lake Meadows
Olympia, WA
May 12, 2016

Lorquin's admiral butterflies can be seen in the Puget Sound region
during the late Spring and Summer months. The butterfly, whose
wingspan measures 2 - 2 5/8 inches, has a black upperside with
white median bands and orange-brown wingtips. The underside
is reddish-brown with white markings. Its range extends from 
southern California to British Columbia. 

The Pacific ninebark is a common native plant of the Puget Sound
lowlands. It blooms in late Spring with clusters of tiny
white flowers sitting like pom-poms at the end of its branches. 

This Saturday, May 14, 2016, is the 21st Annual Prairie Appreciation
Day. This is a magnificent opportunity to visit Thurston County's
Glacial Heritage Preserve, as well as DNR's Mima Mounds. The event takes
from 10 AM to 3 PM. . You can get directions at the Prairie Appreciation Day
website. This is a great way to experience some of Western Washington's
remaining native prairie land and experience native plants, such
as paintbrush and balsamroot. 

Photo of the Week - May 4, 2016

Pink Columbine
Photographed in my front yard

May 4, 2016

Photo of the Week - May 3, 2016

Backlit Ornamental Maple Leaves
radiating with the glow of Spring Sunshine

Washington Park Arboretum
Seattle, Washington

May 3, 2016

Photo of the Week - April 24 - 29, 2016

Fun with close-up and macro photography
In the garden! Everything in bloom or about to bloom!

April 24 - 29, 2016

Beautiful white viburnum flowers grace an impressive small tree
at the Hulda Klager Lilac Garden in Woodland, Washington.

The garden is a registered national historic site and is a must-visit
for all who love lilacs, rhodies and other shrubs which flower
in the Springtime.  

Yellow stonecrop sedum growing in the WSU Extension
sedum demonstration garden at Closed Loop Park, which is built
over part of the former Thurston County landfill. 

The two acre garden features more than 150 varieties of
sedums and peonies. It is one of three gardens maintained
by Thurston County Master Gardeners. 

Detail shot of a purple flag iris growing in my front yard

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